# Features of representational meaning

PCA is a linear feature learning approach since the p singular vectors are linear functions of the data matrix.

The weights can be trained by maximizing the probability of visible variables using Hinton 's contrastive divergence CD algorithm. Each edge has an associated weight, and the network defines computational rules for passing input data from the network's input layer to the output layer.

With appropriately defined network functions, various learning tasks can be performed by minimizing a cost function over the network function weights. First, it assumes that the directions with large variance are of most interest, which may not be the case.

The challenge is to choose a hash space to accommodate the chosen vocabulary size to minimize the probability of collisions and trade-off sparsity.

A binary score or count can then be used to score the word.

In the second step, lower-dimensional points are optimized with fixed weights, which can be solved via sparse eigenvalue decomposition. Often a simple bigram approach is better than a 1-gram bag-of-words model for tasks like documentation classification.

Note that in the first step, the weights are optimized with fixed data, which can be solved as a least squares problem. The approach was proposed by Roweis and Saul The scores are a weighting where not all words are equally as important or interesting.

It is inspired by the animal nervous system, where the nodes are viewed as neurons and edges are viewed as synapses. An example of unsupervised dictionary learning is sparse coding, which aims to learn basis functions dictionary elements for data representation from unlabeled input data.

### Representative meaning

The first step is for "neighbor-preserving", where each input data point Xi is reconstructed as a weighted sum of K nearest neighbor data points, and the optimal weights are found by minimizing the average squared reconstruction error i. Meaning: Discarding word order ignores the context, and in turn meaning of words in the document semantics. An example of unsupervised dictionary learning is sparse coding, which aims to learn basis functions dictionary elements for data representation from unlabeled input data. The simplest is to add k binary features to each sample, where each feature j has value one iff the jth centroid learned by k-means is the closest to the sample under consideration. PCA only relies on orthogonal transformations of the original data, and it exploits only the first- and second-order moments of the data, which may not well characterize the data distribution. Further Reading This section provides more resources on the topic if you are looking go deeper. Sparsity: Sparse representations are harder to model both for computational reasons space and time complexity and also for information reasons, where the challenge is for the models to harness so little information in such a large representational space. LLE consists of two major steps. Approaches include: Supervised dictionary learning[ edit ] Dictionary learning develops a set dictionary of representative elements from the input data such that each data point can be represented as a weighted sum of the representative elements. For example, we use them in hash tables when programming where perhaps names are converted to numbers for fast lookup. The idea is to add a regularization term in the objective function of data likelihood, which penalizes the deviation of the expected hidden variables from a small constant p.

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