The effect was much stronger for those with more opportunity to evade, for example, those with self-employment or farm income and who paid estimated tax.
The study found that statutory time limits for making refunds are crucial but often not applied in practice. This suggests that, at the time, the U. One approach is to estimate an empirical model that treats the discrete choices of whether to itemize deductions and whether to hire professional tax advice, and the choice of how much time and money to spend, conditional on the discrete choices made.
It imposes a burden on a taxpayer to a greater or lesser extent depending on the number and type of interactions field visit by the auditor or office visit by the taxpayer and the level of documentation requested by the auditor.
Delays and inefficiencies in the VAT refund systems are often the result of fears that the system might be abused and prone to fraud.
Moreover, more egalitarian societies will have lower taxable income elasticities. The net VAT balance is refunded to the business only after this period ends.
The data show the opposite for Angola and Mali. The appropriate condition is that, at the margin, the resource cost of increasing enforcement should equal the saving of excess burden attributable to the decline in exposure to risk.
Recent data from the World Development Indicators and the Human Development Index show that economies such as Ireland and Malaysia—which all have relatively low total tax rates—generate tax revenues efficiently and convert the gains into high-quality public goods and services figure 2.
Blumenthal and J.
For example, conclusions about inequality based on cross-sectional snapshots of annual income can give a misleading picture of the inequality of a more permanent notion of income, attributable to the mobility of individuals across annual income classes.